SHAKESPEARE: JULIUS CAESAR      Lectio quinta
 

CARPE DIEM
LATIN
AP

Teksten til stykke 5 i Carpe Diem er stærkt inspireret af Antonius' tale i Shakespeares drama: Julius Caesar. Shakespeare skrev stykket omk. 1600 og hans kilder var den græske forfatter Plutarchs biografier over Cæsar, Brutus og Antonius, skrevet ca. 100 e. Kr.

Følgende er uddrag af 3. akt, 2. scene med Brutus' tale til folket lige efter mordet på Cæsar og begyndelsen af Antonius' tale.

 

    BRUTUS' TALE  Overvej, hvilke retoriske virkemidler der er i spil i de afsnit, der er markeret med brunt. Gå selv på jagt i teksten efter flere!

THIRD CITIZEN:
The noble Brutus is ascended: silence!

BRUTUS:
Be patient till the last.
Romans, countrymen, and lovers! Hear me for my cause; and be
silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honour, and have
respect to mine honor, that you may believe:
censure me in your
wisdom; and awake your senses, that you may the better judge.
If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar's, to
him I say that Brutus' love to Caesar was no less than his. If
then that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is
my answer,--Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome
more.
Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than
that Caesar were dead, to live all freemen? As Caesar loved me, I
weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was
valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him.
There is tears for his love; joy for his fortune; honour for his
valour; and death for his ambition. Who is here so base that
would be a bondman? If any,
speak; for him have I offended. Who
is here
so rude that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him
have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his
country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.

CITIZENS:
None, Brutus, none.

BRUTUS:
Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Caesar
than you shall do to Brutus.
The question of his death is
enroll'd in the Capitol, his glory not extenuated, wherein he
was worthy; nor his offenses enforced, for which he suffered death.

 

[Enter Antony and others, with Caesar's body.]

 

Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a
place in the commonwealth; as which of you shall not? With this
I depart-- that, as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I
have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country
to need my death.
CITIZENS:
Live, Brutus! live, live!

3. BORGER:
Stilhed! Den
ædle Brutus står deroppe.
BRUTUS:

H
ør nu tålmodigt mig til ende.

Romere, landsmænd og venner, hør mig for min sags skyld og vær
stille, så I bedre kan høre. Tro mig for min æres skyld, og husk
på min ære, så I kan tro mig. Bedøm mig i jeres
visdom, og hav åbne sanser, så I bedre kan dømme.
Hvis der er nogen i denne forsamling, en eller anden nær ven af Cæsar, så
vil jeg sige til ham, at Brutus' kærlighed til Cæsar ikke var mindre end hans. Hvis
så denne ven spørger, hvorfor Brutus rejste sig mod Cæsar, er
mit svar dette: Ikke fordi jeg elskede Cæsar mindre, men fordi jeg elskede Rom
højere. Ville I hellere have en levende Cæsar og alle dø som slaver, end
have en død Cæsar og alle leve som frie mænd? Cæsar elskede mig,
derfor græder jeg over ham; han var lykkelig, det glæder jeg mig over; han var
tapper, det ærer jeg ham for; men han var herskesyg, derfor slog jeg ham ihjel.
Der er tårer for hans kærlighed, glæde for hans lykke, ære for hans
tapperhed og død for hans herskesyge. Hvem her er så lavtstående, at
han hellere ville være træl? Hvis der er nogen, så sig det, for ham har jeg krænket. Hvem
her er så grov, at han ikke ønsker at være romer? Hvis der er nogen, så sig det, for ham
har jeg krænket. Hvem her er så ussel, at han ikke vil elske sit
land? Hvis der er nogen, så sig det, for ham har jeg krænket. Jeg venter på et svar.

ALLE:
Ingen, Brutus, der er ingen.
BRUTUS:
S
å har jeg ikke krænket nogen. Jeg har ikke gjort andet ved Cæsar,
end I skal gøre ved Brutus. Der er gjort rede for hans død
på Capitol; man har ikke formindsket den hæder, han
fortjener; man har ikke overdrevet den brøde, som han har lidt døden for.

[Antonius med følge ind med Cæsars lig],

Her kommer hans lig, begrædt af Antonius, der, skønt han ikke havde nogen
del i hans død, dog skal få gavn af, at han døde: en
plads i den frie stat — og hvem af jer skal ikke det? Hermed
går jeg, og ligesom jeg slog min bedste ven ihjel for Roms skyld,
således har jeg den samme dolk til mig selv, hvis det skal behage mit land
at forlange min død.

ALLE:
Leve, Brutus, leve!

 

    ANTONIUS' TALE  Overvej, hvilke retoriske virkemidler der er i spil i de afsnit, der er markeret med lilla. Gå selv på jagt i teksten efter flere!

ANTONY:
You gentle Romans,--

CITIZENS:
Peace, ho! let us hear him.

ANTONY:
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones:
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault;
And grievously hath Caesar answer'd it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest,--
For Brutus is an honourable man;
So are they all, all honorable men,--
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.

He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.

You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once,--not without cause:
What cause withholds you, then, to mourn for him?--
O judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason!--Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.

FIRST CITIZEN:
Methinks there is much reason in his sayings.

SECOND CITIZEN:
If thou consider rightly of the matter,
Caesar has had great wrong.

THIRD CITIZEN:
Has he not, masters?
I fear there will a worse come in his place.

FOURTH CITIZEN:
Mark'd ye his words? He would not take the crown;
Therefore 'tis certain he was not ambitious.

FIRST CITIZEN:
If it be found so, some will dear abide it.

SECOND CITIZEN:
Poor soul! his eyes are red as fire with weeping.

THIRD CITIZEN:
There's not a nobler man in Rome than Antony.

FOURTH CITIZEN:
Now mark him; he begins again to speak.

ANTONY:
But yesterday the word of Caesar might
Have stood against the world: now lies he there,
And none so poor to do him reverence.
O masters, if I were disposed to stir
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,
I should do Brutus wrong and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honourable men:
I will not do them wrong; I rather choose
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you,
Than I will wrong such honourable men.

But here's a parchment with the seal of Caesar,--
I found it in his closet,--'tis his will:
Let but the commons hear this testament,--
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read,--
And they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds,
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood;
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it as a rich legacy
Unto their issue.

FOURTH CITIZEN:
We'll hear the will: read it, Mark Antony.

ANTONY:
Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it;
It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you.
You are not wood, you are not stones, but men;
And, being men, hearing the will of Caesar,
It will inflame you, it will make you mad.
'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs;
For if you should, O, what would come of it!

FOURTH CITIZEN:
Read the will! we'll hear it, Antony;
You shall read us the will,--Caesar's will!

ANTONIUS:
I ædle romere
ALLE:

Hej, stille! Lad os høre ham.

ANTONIUS:

Romere, landsm
ænd, venner, lån mig øre;
Jeg skal begrave, ikke prise Cæsar.
Det ondt, man øver, lever efter en,
det gode bli'r begravet med ens ben;
et være Cæsars lod. Den ædle Brutus
har sagt om Cæsar, han var herskesyg.
I så fald var det en alvorlig fejl,
og Cæsar har betalt alvorligt for den.
Af Brutus og de andre fik jeg lov
-
og Brutus er bestemt en h
ædersmand,
det er de allesammen, h
ædersmænd -
at holde tale her ved Cæsars ligfærd.
Han var min ven, trofast og god mod mig;
men Brutus si'r, at han var herskesyg
og  Brutus er bestemt en h
ædersmand.
Han bragte mange fanger hjem til Rom,
og l
øsesummen fyldte statens kasse;
syn's det nu gjort af ham i herskesyge?
C
æsar har grædt, når fattigfolk har jamret;
s
å blød bør herskesyge ikke være;
men Brutus si'r, at han var herskesyg,
og Brutus er bestemt en h
ædersmand.
I s
å ham alle her ved Lupercal,
tre gange tilb
ød jeg ham kongekronen,
men han sa' nej. Er det mon herskesyge?
Men Brutus si'r, at han var herskesyg,
og Brutus er bestemt en hædersmand.
Hvad Brutus sa', im
ødegår jeg ikke,
men jeg vil sige alt det, som jeg v
éd.
I elsked ham engang, af gode grunde;
hvad grund forhindrer jer nu i at s
ørge?
Al d
ømmekraft er nu hos dyrene
og men'sker misted al fornuft. Tilgiv mig.
Mit hjerte er p
å båren dér hos Cæsar,
og jeg m
å tie, til jeg atter får det. 
1. BORGER:

Jeg syn's, der er fornuft i det, han si'r.

2. BORGER:
Når man betragter sagen ret,
har Cæsar
lidt megen uret.
3.
  BORGER:
Det syn's I, kammerater?
Jeg er bange, vi får en v
ærre mand i Cæsars sted.
4. BORGER:
I så, han ikke ville ta' mod kronen;
det viser, han var ikke herskesyg.
1. BORGER:
S
å kommer nogen til at bøde for det.
2. BORGER:
Han græder sine øjne røde, stakkel.
3. BORGER:
Den ædleste i Rom er dog Antonius.
4. BORGER:
Men stille, nu begynder han igen at tale.
ANTONIUS:
Endnu i går ku’ Cæsars ord beherske
den hele jord; nu ligger Cæsar dér.
Og ingen stodder viser ham lidt ære.
O borgere, hvis jeg nu ville ægge
jert sind og hjerter til oprør og vrede,
var det forkert mod Brutus og mod Cassius,
der, som I alle véd, er hædersmænd.
Jeg gør dem ikke uret, jeg gør hel're
den døde uret, og mig selv og jer,
end uret imod den slags hædersmænd.
Her er et pergament med Cæsars segl;
jeg fandt det i hans kammer, testamentet.
Hvis folket hørte dette testamente,
— ja undskyld jeg vil ikke læse det —
da gik det hen og kyssed Cæsars sår
og dypped deres klæder i hans blod,
ja tigged sig et hår til minde om ham
og nævnte det i deres testamente
og skænked det til deres slægt,
som om det var en kostbar arv.
4. BORGER:

Det vil vi h
øre. Læs det op, Antonius.
ANTONIUS:

Nej, venner, ti. Det t
ør jeg ikke læse.
Lær aldrig Cæsars kærlighed at kende.
For I er ikke træ og sten, men mænd,  
og derfor ville Cæsars testamente
opflamme jer og drive jer til vanvid.
edst, at I ikke véd, at I sku' arve,
or vidste I det, hvad ku' der da ske?
4. BORGER:  

Læs det, Antonius; vi vil h
øre det.
Læs Cæsars testamente, læs det for os!